Does the local weather science business intentionally ignore a single side of the sturdy El Niño occasions that trigger long-term world warming?

PREFACE

Slightly over 10 years in the past, I printed my first weblog posts on the plain evolutions of the ocean floor temperatures of a lot of the planet's oceans …. The evolutions resulting from El Niño …. that lead to pure world warming, brought on by daylight.

There’s a quite simple rationalization for these upward El Niño modifications, that are additionally obvious within the sea floor temperature information for a a lot bigger a part of the planet's oceans than I do. introduced for the primary time a decade in the past … the ascending steps which can be obtrusive The ocean floor temperature information for the South Atlantic, Indian and Western Pacific Oceans (as proven in Determine 1), are evident in Satellite tv for pc period (as of November 1981), which collectively cowl about 52% of the floor of the world's oceans.

Determine 1

NOTE: The upward steps aren’t a characteristic of the NOAA Reynolds OI.v2 sea floor temperature dataset proven in Determine 1. They’re additionally clearly seen in the identical area utilizing the UKMO HADISST information set (graph beneath). ) and utilizing the NOAA "Pause-Buster" information set ERSST.v5 (graph right here). In fact, Tom Karl's "Break Buster" temperature information present the warmest temperature. [End note.]

The reason of the upward steps has largely been forgotten … or could also be intentionally ignored by the local weather and local weather science business as a result of the monetary foundation for his or her livelihood is local weather change induced by unnatural people. While you see how easy the reason of those pure advances is, you’ll be able to conclude that the local weather science business intentionally ignored Mom Nature's work and intentionally misled the general public as to to the reason for world warming.

Within the earlier paragraph, I wrote that the reason had been largely ignored. The one place I do know this has not been ignored is in my e-book "Why do you have got a denier for world warming?", Which was first printed a couple of 12 months in the past. We focus on it once more on this submit.

Word : For this dialogue, we use one of many classical definitions of an El Niño occasion, by which the temperatures of the japanese equatorial sea floor exceed a threshold resulting from ocean-atmosphere coupling. course of (described later on this submit) and keep excessive for greater than two months. In different phrases, it isn’t a dialogue a couple of totally different sort of El Niño, like El Niño Modoki. Extra particularly, I take advantage of a typical definition of an El Niño occasion, as mirrored within the sea floor temperature anomalies of the NINO3.four area of the japanese equatorial Pacific. In different phrases, El Niño circumstances exist when sea floor temperature anomalies NINO3.four attain or exceed +Zero.5 ° C.

The advances don’t happen in response to all El Niño occasions. The development illustrated in Determine 1 occurred in response to the El Nino occasions of 1986/87/88, 1997/98, 2009/10 and 2014/15/16. They’re extra more likely to happen throughout violent occasions associated to the El Nino phenomenon within the japanese Pacific, which aren’t opposed by volcanic eruptions. Certainly, the aerosols emitted by the 1982 El Chichon eruption thwarted the 1982/83 El Niño sequelae, whose energy was akin to that of the 1997 El Niño "tremendous". 98, and the aerosols emitted by the 1991 Mount Le pinatubo eruption overwhelmed the El Niño sequelae of 1991/92.

To be taught extra in regards to the occasions in El Niño that brought on the steps to go up, I included the dialogue beneath. It’s based mostly on NOAA Reynolds OI.v2 sea floor temperature anomaly information for the NINO3.four (5S-5N, 170W-120W) area, with information downloaded by way of KNMI Local weather Explorer and referenced anomalies for the interval 1981-2010. . Extra exactly:

For Niño 1986/87/88, sea floor temperature anomalies NINO3.four reached or exceeded +Zero.5 C in September 1986, peaked at +1.7 ° C in September and October 1987 and are remained greater than or equal to +Zero.5 ° C January 1988.
For the 1997/98 Niño, NINO3.four sea floor temperature anomalies reached or exceeded +Zero.5 C in Might 1997, peaked at + 2.7 ° C in November and December 1997, and remained above or equal to +Zero.5 ° C till Might 1998..
For the 2009/10 Niño, NINO3.four sea floor temperature anomalies reached or exceeded +Zero.5 C in June 2009, peaked at +1.7 ° C in December 2009, and remained above or equal to at +Zero.5 ° C till April 2010.
For Niño 2014/15/16, NINO3.four sea floor temperature anomalies reached or exceeded +Zero.5 C in October 2014, peaked at +three.Zero C in November 2015, and remained above or beneath equal to +Zero.5 C till April 2016.

The 4 El Niño occasions reached not less than one NINO3.four sea floor temperature anomaly of +1.7 ° C, and the NINO3.four sea floor temperature anomalies had been remained at or above +Zero.5 ° C for not less than 11 months.

[End note.]

BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE REASON FOR THE NEXT STEPS OF NIÑO :

Initially, you should take into account that the gyres of the tropical Pacific and the South Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific act as a pure heating system, with the tropical Pacific taking part in the position of boiler and components of Pacific gyres exterior the tropics. just like the heating coils and the radiance of the plinth. That’s, within the tropics (the boiler), the floor waters of the ocean are warmed by the solar once they transfer from the Americas to the east. Australia and Indonesia within the west. When these waters warmed by daylight journey the remainder of the gyres circuits of the North and South Pacific (heating coils and radiations skirting), they launch into the environment warmth launched by the tropics, primarily by evaporation.

The results of the El Niño catastrophe within the japanese Pacific are akin to sending a great quantity of water in a sizzling water heating system by the boiler a second time, with a bypass circuit, earlier than the water heated twice by the boiler is shipped to the heating coils and the radiance of the plinth. In different phrases, the water is returned to the boiler one other time earlier than it goes round the remainder of the heating system. What? you say. Sure, it's as easy … so easy that even a baby can perceive it. In fact, a powerful occasion, El Niño within the japanese Pacific, causes a long-term rise in temperatures on the floor of the planet. There is no such thing as a manner that it isn’t doable.

I’ll give a extra detailed rationalization later on this submit, in addition to an evidence that the La Niña occasions are NOT the other of the El Niño occasions.

Word: For individuals who have bother imagining this with a duct heating system, take into account that ocean gyres aren’t pipelines, however are open to the environment. So think about open tanks on the inlet and outlet of the boiler, with the bypass piping and the pump going from the discharge tank to the consumption tank, along with the pump for the boiler and the the pump for the piping of the heating coils and the radiation of the plinth. [End note.]

WHAT PROMOTED THIS POST

Occasionally, throughout his each day updates and Saturday summaries of Climate Bell Analytics that I watch each day, and whereas displaying a graph of worldwide temperature anomalies from the low troposphere (Determine 2), Joe Bastardi refers back to the apparent rise in total low-tropospheric temperature anomalies brought on by the 1997/98 "tremendous" El Niño. He then means that one other upward advance may have been brought on by the 2014/15/16 El Niño phenomenon.

Determine 2

The supply of the graph in Determine 2 is the World Temperature Report from the Earth Science Science Middle of the College of Alabama at Huntsville, particularly the online web page displayed right here.

A MORE DETAILED PREFACE

Will increase in sea floor temperature brought on by El Niño had been illustrated and mentioned in January 2009 in my two-part article Can El Niño occasions clarify all noticed world warming since 1976 1 at WattsUpWithThat is right here, with the crossword of Half 1 on my weblog right here, and half 2 at WattsUpWithThat is right here, with the crossword of Half 2 on my weblog right here.) Extra years Late, I began to incorporate El Niño The month-to-month replace of sea floor temperature anomalies within the period of satellites, which I’ve not up to date for greater than 2 years, has resulted in upward modifications for a lot of the world's oceans. The South Atlantic, the Indian and the West Pacific account for about 52% of the world's ocean floor.

Between my first two posts ten years in the past and the publication of Dad, why are you a denier for world warming? A 12 months in the past, after years of analysis on the El Niño and La Niña processes, after dozens of articles about them and after a large number of conversations on the identical topic with the guests of WattsUpWithThat and my weblog Local weather Observations, I printed my free e-book . Who turned on the warmth? – The unsuspected planetary warming wrongdoer, El Niño – Southern Oscillation . I can say with pleasure that Who turned on the warmth? is probably the most detailed introduction and dialogue of coupled ocean-atmosphere processes which can be behind El Niño and La Niña occasions. It has been specifically designed for non-technical folks and, for documentation functions, it presents simply accessible information to the general public. Who turned on the warmth? ought to reply your questions in regards to the El Niño and La Niña processes, excluding the dialogue on returning the water a second time within the boiler. For this you have to to consult with …

ADDITIONAL INTRODUCTION TO THE EXPLANATION OF THE SUBSEQUENT STEPS RELATED TO THE NIÑO

The next textual content in daring (italics) is from my e-book Dad, why are you a denier for world warming? . It's a part of a dialog between a lady (Anna) and her father and it's written within the first particular person by Anna. It offers a fairly comprehensible, non-technical (as non-technical as doable) rationalization for the rise in sea floor temperatures within the South Atlantic / Indian / West Pacific oceans, brought on by the energy of the japanese sector. Pacific El Niño occasions.

In my e-book Dad, why are you a denier for world warming? the next textual content is included underneath the title:

SURFACE TEMPERATURE RECORDS AT SEA ARE STRONGLY SUGGESTED BY THE SURFACES OF WORLD OCEANS HEATED NATURALLY SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE 1980s

About 40% of the journey within the quick story, writes Anna, recalling a dialog along with her father [Begin Reprint]:

He started: "Have you ever ever heard of El Niño and La Niña occasions, Anna?"

"Most experiences on El Niños describe them as uncommon warming occasions within the japanese tropical Pacific Ocean, off the west coast of the USA. South America. They’re the reason for the large rising peaks we see within the world floor temperature graphs. "

"These aren’t simply warming occasions, and regardless of what science reporters say, there may be nothing uncommon about them." Dad shook his head in disgust. "Lovely could be a greater phrase. Listed below are the information. El Niño occasions happen each two to seven years. El Niños are probably the most superb and highly effective climate occasions ever created by Mom Nature. What energy? El Niños is usually launched by a sequence of tropical storms within the western tropical Pacific.

"We begin with a basic overview of how they trigger world warming in the long term, naturally. Prepared? "

"Since I got here dwelling, dad."

"Okay, wait a couple of minutes whereas I pull the globe out of your bed room." Dad got here again with a globe that I had been sitting on a shelf since I used to be in elementary college. He took an enthusiastic tour and sat subsequent to me earlier than inserting it on the desk between us. He stopped the globe in rotation and turned it over in order that the Pacific Ocean may face us. From my standpoint, the Pacific Ocean, with little or no land, was all I may see. This was a terrific reminder of the magnitude of the Pacific Ocean.

As he learn in my ideas, my father stated, "As you’ll be able to see, Anna, the tropical Pacific Ocean extends virtually to the opposite finish of the globe. "

"From Indonesia to the west to South America to the east," I confirmed whereas tracing my index finger alongside the equator. "The Pacific Ocean is a species of humility!"

"Certainly. At current, the floor waters of the japanese tropical Pacific are usually colder than these within the western half. And there’s a easy rationalization. Border currents are alongside the coasts of North and South America bringing chilly waters from extratropes to the tropics. He traced his index south alongside the western shores of North and Central America after which north alongside the west coast of South America. "Beneath regular circumstances, the commerce winds push the chilly waters of the japanese tropical Pacific on the opposite facet of the globe, throughout the tropical Pacific, underneath the nice and cozy tropical solar, pushing all of it the best way west once more till it reaches the west. that every one this sun-heated water reaches Indonesia. and Australia. Whereas he was saying the final sentence, he claimed to be pushing water from east to west all through the tropical Pacific, from the west coast of South America to the west. Ecuador, Indonesia and Australia.

He then traced his finger alongside the equator within the japanese tropical Pacific, as he stated: "Within the japanese equatorial Pacific, east of the reference date, the commerce winds additionally trigger the formation of chilly water from the depths of the floor. drawn on the floor in a course of known as upwelling. This cool water can be warmed by the solar shifting westward, pushed by the commerce winds, virtually to the opposite finish of the globe within the tropical Pacific. "

"Agreed, I understood."

"The currents of the western border carry these heat waters from the solar to the poles, the place these freed polar waters launch the warmth created by the solar into the environment." Whereas there spoke, he continued his demonstration. within the South Pacific, east of Australia, then tipping hemispheres and tracing the North Pacific to east of Asia.

"You too, dad. You describe ocean circulation. "

"Bingo. Nevertheless, on the similar time, a lot of the sun-warmed water is accumulating within the western tropical Pacific in what is named the Pacific Heat Pool. Along with his finger, my father went round an space in japanese Indonesia and northern Australia. "Then think about a basin of water the dimensions of the USA, a thousand ft deep."

"It's an enormous piece of sizzling water."

"Yup. The whole lot in regards to the Pacific Ocean is big.

"The huge currents that carry this sun-warmed water from east to west within the tropical Pacific are known as equatorial north and south currents."

"A way".

"Alongside the equator, there may be additionally a a lot smaller present that strikes in the wrong way, from west to east, known as the equatorial counter-current. And beneath, one other stream from west to east, known as the Cromwell Present, also called the Pacific Equatorial Present. These floor and subsurface currents shifting east usually carry a lot much less water than equatorial north and south equatorial currents. "

"I've had you till now, dad. And also you stated that the solar had warmed the solar many occasions. "

"Simply set the stage and reinforce that truth."

His use of the phrase "regular" in his explanations led me to intervene: "However one thing occurs that causes modifications in these regular circumstances."

"Bingo!" He smiles extensively. "A westerly wind, typically brought on by a tropical storm – or two of them straddling the equator – upsets the equilibrium and sends out an enormous impulse of heat water. 39, west is alongside the equator. Word that it’s usually hotter within the western tropical Pacific than within the japanese half. This sizzling water impulse strikes to the floor, however most of it’s transported underneath the floor alongside the Cromwell present. If there may be sufficient wind from the west within the western tropical Pacific for a 12 months and if sufficient heat water is shifting to the east on the floor and beneath the floor to extend the usually cooler floor temperatures within the central and japanese equatorial Pacific by greater than Zero.5 ° C. then we are saying that El Niño circumstances happen. "

"It's very cool, dad."

"No, sizzling sufficient, my expensive."

I groaned with a smile

"And if floor temperatures stay excessive within the central and japanese equatorial Pacific for about six months, a full-fledged official occasion, El Niño, would have occurred."

"Gotcha. El Niño circumstances imply that sea-surface temperature anomalies within the japanese equatorial Pacific have exceeded a threshold of Zero.5 ° C. If they continue to be excessive for about six months, an official El Niño occasion takes place. "

"And El Niño occasions usually peak in the course of the northern winter. West wind gusts begin a lot earlier within the 12 months. It takes just a few months within the sizzling water of West Pacific Heat Pool to go east to South America. Take into account that it takes a number of gusts of westerly wind to ship sufficient sizzling water east to trigger El Niño. So, the delivery of an El Niño by Mom Nature takes a couple of 12 months and a half, typically extra, typically much less. Oh sure, El Niños normally begins in a single 12 months and ends within the subsequent 12 months. Thus, you will note them expressed, for instance, underneath the identify El Niño of 1997/98. "

"It have to be fascinating to see El Niños kind."

"The NOAA and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) monitor many atmospheric and oceanic variables within the tropical and equatorial Pacific. You possibly can observe on-line the gradual delivery of an El Niño for a number of months.

"Now, let me make clear one thing. In an El Niño, a monstrous quantity of sizzling water has flowed from the nice and cozy western Pacific basin to the japanese tropical Pacific, the place it’s usually colder. No new sizzling water has been created. It has simply been moved from the hotter western Pacific basin, the place it’s usually hotter, to the japanese equatorial Pacific, the place it’s usually colder. And the recent water that had been beneath the floor, touring west is alongside the Cromwell underground present, it rises to the floor within the east. "

"Okay, I perceive."

"And in the course of the very intense occasions of El Niño, a lot sizzling water is carried to the east that many of the sizzling water, above and beneath the floor, is now discovered within the japanese tropical Pacific as an alternative of the place it’s usually discovered within the western tropical Pacific. That is to say that floor and sub-surface circumstances – usually hotter waters within the west and cooler within the east – have been the thing of 39, commerce. "

"It's way more detailed and helpful than the straightforward rationalization we hear on the information. Second, as a result of the media describes this occasion as an uncommon warming, folks like me who don’t perceive the method are confused and suppose that the El Niño phenomenon is brought on by world warming. "

"When it's simply the other. An El Niño may cause a pure long-term world warming, powered by daylight. "

"In order that's the pure causality you're speaking about," I say, nodding excitedly, "El Niño!"

"That's proper. However earlier than going into particulars, I have to make clear one thing. Because of the course of known as upwelling, in the course of the El Niño, there may be extra sizzling water than regular that’s spreading all through the tropical Pacific, typically even to the east. on the coast of South America. With all these hotter than regular waters unfold within the japanese tropical Pacific, evaporation is way more essential. Thus, the tropical Pacific releases into the environment a monumental quantity of warmth created by daylight. My father interrupted and checked out me attentively. He stated, "However all the recent water that went by the east was not cooled. return to regular by evaporation. That's why, and it's essential, the renewed commerce winds weigh all these sizzling stays within the tropical Pacific, warming up a second time underneath the tropical solar – let me repeat, being reheated a second time within the tropics the solar – earlier than being despatched peweward by the currents of the western restrict. "

"In a sizzling water heating system," I say, pondering of my present job and that of my father, "it might be like sizzling water recirculating a second time within the boiler. earlier than emptying it. heating coils and baseboard radiations. "

"Sure!" Dad laughs softly. "That's precisely what I assumed once I realized it for the primary time."

[End Reprint.]

After this introduction of 1,700 phrases, the reasons for the ascending steps proceed for three,00Zero further phrases in Dad, Why are you a denier of worldwide warming? then go on to a dialogue and an evidence of what’s taking place naturally Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation, which has brought on a quicker warming of the North Atlantic seabed in latest many years in comparison with the warming brought on naturally by the sturdy El Niño occasions of the South Atlantic, Indian and Western Pacific Oceans.

There may be additionally discuss of how La Niña occasions are replenishing the nice and cozy waters of the Western Pacific Sizzling Basin. The temperature of the ocean floor within the japanese equatorial Pacific is cooler than regular throughout a La Niña. Because of the freshness of the evaporation, the evaporation is much less intense. As well as, with much less evaporation, cloud cowl is lowered, in order that attain within the tropical Pacific and heat it to the depth.

HOW A THE NIÑA IS NOT THE OPPOSITE OF AN EL NIÑO

As a reminder: Usually the north and south equatorial currents induced by the commerce winds within the tropical Pacific result in waters virtually on the different finish of the globe and heat up once they transfer to the opposite facet of the world. the tropical solar. After this passage alongside the tropical Pacific, a part of this sun-warmed water is saved in a big plunge pool known as West Pacific Heat Pool, with out having carried out a whole circuit of the gyres of the north or south of the Pacific the place they are often launched extra simply. Warmth within the environment at mid to excessive latitudes, primarily by evaporation. The amount of sizzling water within the heat West Pacific basin will increase over time and sometimes will increase dramatically throughout La Niña occasions, when a discount in cloud cowl permits daylight to penetrate the tropical Pacific Ocean. to heat it completely.

With a powerful East Pacific El Ni̱o an enormous quantity of heat water from the Western Pacific Basin is pushed eastward from the japanese tropical Pacific to the coast of North America. South, the place the surfaces are usually colder than within the West Pacific Heat Pool. On the finish of El Ni̱o, when the commerce winds resume regular east-west exercise, all the hotter than regular waters of the japanese tropical Pacific Рleft behind by El Ni̱o Рare pushed westward. reheated a second time underneath the tropical solar because it travels half of the globe earlier than heading to the poles in order that warmth will be launched into the environment, primarily by evaporation. Formulated in any other case, after El Ni̱o, floor waters are hotter than regular within the japanese tropical Pacific earlier than beginning their journey throughout the tropical Pacific underneath the recent tropical solar. There is no such thing as a manner that an El Ni̱o fort within the japanese Pacific can contribute to world warming in the long term.

Does the reverse happen in a La Ni̱a? Right here is the true decisive. On the finish of La Nina, when the commerce winds regained their regular forces from east to west, are all of the colder than regular waters of the japanese tropical Pacific Рleft behind by La Ni̱a Рdrawn from the ocean. West to be cooled a second time underneath the tropical solar because it travels midway across the globe earlier than heading to the poles to have the ability to take up warmth from the environment? In fact not. Toute personne qui dit qu'une La Ni̱a est le contraire d'un El Ni̱o annonce son ignorance des processus El Ni̱o et La Ni̱a, afin que le monde entier puisse voir Рou Рils fassent une fausse d̩claration intentionnelle sur ces processus.

LA CHARGE [RECHARGE] DU CONTENU DE LA CHALEUR OCÉANIQUE DANS LE PACIFIQUE TROPICAL AVANT [AFTER] AN EL NIÑO

Une quantité énorme de chaleur est libérée du Pacifique tropical lors d'un El Niño. D'où provient la chaleur de l'océan et remark se recharge-t-elle? Une partie de cette perte de chaleur, ou la totalité de cette perte de chaleur (et même plus occasionnellement) peut être créée immédiatement avant le El Niño (comme ce fut le cas avant le Tremendous El Niño de 1997/98 au cours de la période 1995/96 pensée pour être faible) La Niña) ou restaurée par la suite par les processus d’atmosphère couplée océanique qui se déroulent dans le Pacifique tropical lors des événements de La Niña, comme ce fut le cas lors du La 1998/99/00/01. (Vous pouvez confirmer le second et la durée de ces événements à La Niña avec l'indice océanique de Niño ici.) Des températures de floor de la mer plus froides que la normale dans le Pacifique tropical au cours d'une période de La Niña entraînent une évaporation inférieure à la normale, ce qui donne moins de nuages. couvrent que la normale là-bas, ce qui permet plus de lumière du soleil (rayonnement à ondes courtes en bas) que la normale d'entrer dans le Pacifique tropical, chargeant ainsi (rechargeant) la chaleur de l'océan.

Ainsi, les événements El Niño et La Niña agissent ensemble comme un oscillateur de charge-décharge chaotique, naturel, alimenté par la lumière du soleil, les événements El Niño servant de part de décharge et les événements de La Niña jouant le rôle de part de recharge. Easy.

Et avant que quelqu'un ne fasse une affirmation weird à propos du rayonnement infrarouge (à infrarouge) responsable de la cost / recharge de La Niñas, cette logique pose un problème. Why? tu demandes. Étant donné que le rayonnement à ondes longues descendant augmente dans le Pacifique tropical au cours de la part El Niño, lorsque le Pacifique tropical libère de la chaleur, et que le rayonnement à ondes longues descendant diminue au-dessus du Pacifique tropical au cours de la part de La Niña, lorsque le Pacifique tropical dégage de la chaleur.

L'side «recharge» des événements de La Niña a été examiné et documenté à l'aide de données plus détaillées au chapitre three.10 La recharge de chaleur océanique pendant la La Niña de mon free e-book Qui a allumé la chaleur ? – Le coupable insoupçonné du réchauffement climatique, El Niño – Oscillation australe .

ET POUR CEUX QUI VEULENT DIRE QUE LE RÉCHAUFFEMENT GLOBAL FAIT ENTRAÎNER LES ÉVÉNEMENTS D'EL NIÑO

Les anomalies de la température de floor de la mer dans la région NINO3.four (5S-5N, 170W-120W) du Pacifique équatorial sont un indicateur couramment utilisé pour le second, l'intensité et la durée des événements El Niño et La Niña. Au cours de l'ère des satellites, la tendance des anomalies de température de floor de la mer pour la région NINO3.four est une ligne plate, avec une tendance de -Zero,004 ° C / décennie. Voir la determine three.

Determine three

Word: Ce sont les indices ENSO tels que les anomalies de température de floor de la mer NINO3.four, Determine three, qui donnent à certaines personnes la conviction erronée que les événements de La Niña sont l'opposé des événements d'El Niño, mais les indices ENSO ne représentent pas les processus d'El Niño. et événements La Niña. Ces indices ne reflètent que les effets des événements El Niño et La Niña sur la métrique observée. [End note.]

NOTE DE CLÔTURE

Vous vous posez peut-être une query comme celle-ci: pourquoi le plus lengthy et le plus fort El Niño 2014/15/16 n'a-t-il pas créé une hausse des températures de floor de la mer dans l'Atlantique Sud, l'Indien et le Pacifique occidental (Determine 1)? )? Nous étudierons cela et présenterons les résultats dans un prochain article. Et je ne crois pas que vous soyez surpris.

C’est tout pour ce poste.

Amusez-vous dans les commentaires et profitez du reste de votre journée.

DEMANDE DE CLÔTURE STANDARD

Et achetez s'il vous pląt Anthony Watts et al. Changement climatique: les faits Р2017.

Merci à ceux d'entre vous qui les avez achetés. Merci également à ceux qui les achèteront.

Cordialement,

Bob Tisdale

Comme ceci:

Comme Chargement …

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